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  • Apply tension

    Use any procedure necessary to achieve the required bolt tension.

  • Bolt tension tightening

    Tightening method where the tightening tool is controlled in real-time in direct relation to the measurement of the bolt tension.

  • Bolted assembly

    A means of attaching parts together using a nut + bolt or a stud which can be dismantled.


    Centre Technique des Industries Mécaniques (Technical Center for Mechanical Industry) which has a number of specialized centers offering training and consulting services related to TRAXX’s specializations: bolted assembly engineering, metrological surveys, mechanical component wear and industrial performance.

  • Cofrend

    The French confederation for non-invasive testing techniques. Association which defines and administrates the national certification system for the training of operatives for non-invasive testing.

  • Contrôles Non Destructifs (NDT – Non-Destructive Tests)

     Tests and evaluations which indirectly measure material properties or detect and measure faults in parts or assemblies without destroying them.  TRAXX is classed in the NDT field even though its units are used in manufacturing and not just for testing.

  • Controlled tightening

     Tightening method during which the tension is measured directly.

  • Elasticity threshold

    When a screw/bolt is tightened, it is elongated by the tension. As long as the screw remains within its elasticity threshold, it will return to its original form when the applied tension is released. If the force increases further, the screw/bolt will elongate until it breaks. It will become plastic when the screw, being over-tightened, no longer returns to its original form when the tension is released.

    The third phase is breakage.

  • Friction coefficient

    Coefficient, between zero and one, which measures the degree of friction between two parts.

  • Over-tightening

    Either the screw or assembled parts are warped (elastic threshold exceeded).

  • Probe

    Synonymous with an ultrasound transducer or sensor.

  • Tightening

    Action affected, by applying tension, to an assembly to hold the parts together.

  • Tightening tension

    Compression force applied between the assembled parts by the screw/bolt subjected to it by traction. Expressed in Newtons (N) or, more practically, kilo-Newtons (kN).

        1 N = 0.1019 kgf.

        1 kN = 101.9 kgf.

  • Torque

        Rotary force applied to the head of a screw or bolt in order to tighten it.

        Expressed in N.m (Newton.meter) or daN.m.

  • Transducer

    Synonymous with an ultrasound probe or sensor.

  • Ultrasound

    Acoustic vibration at a frequency that exceeds the upper limits of the human ear, between 20 kHz and a few tens of MHz Propagates very efficiently inside steel at frequencies of a few MHz

  • Ultrasound sensor

    Piezoelectric ultrasound sender-receiver, placed on the bolthead during measurement. Synonymous with an ultrasound transducer or probe.

  • Ultrasound tension measurement

    Methods that use the propagation of ultrasound waves inside materials to measure bolt tension.

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